Racionalización cultural de adicciones mediante representación narrativa del trauma poscolonial en reservas indígenas canadienses

Alfonso Marquina-Márquez, Jorge Virchez, Raúl Ruiz-Callado

Resumo


Este artículo examina cómo discursos de salud mental, producidos dentro de un movimiento social de revitalización indígena, proporcionan una racionalidad cultural para la construcción contemporánea de la identidad. El diseño de la investigación ha sido cualitativo, realizándose un estudio de caso etnográfico y utilizando un muestreo intencional. Para la recolección del material empírico se utilizaron técnicas basadas en la entrevista y observación participante. Estrategias de análisis del contenido y del discurso han coadyuvado en la obtención de unos resultados que revelan cómo la concepción de la salud mental en reservas indígenas ha llegado a ser un dominio simbólico para crear y recrear la noción del yo indígena y para afrontar su posición marginal en el contexto poscolonial y sociopolítico canadiense. Las conclusiones de este estudio señalan cómo los problemas psicosociales en el contexto de las reservas indígenas trascienden el fenómeno epidemiológico para convertirlo en un fenómeno político, reflexivo y moral.

Palavras-chave


salud mental, movimientos sociales, reservas indígenas, identidad, discurso, narrativa, Canadá

Texto completo:

PDF

Referências


Adelson, Noemi (2004): “Being Alive Well”: Health and the Politics of Cree Well-Being, Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Álvarez Roldán, Arturo (2008): La memoria amenazada, Granada: Ayuntamiento de Puebla de Don Fabrique.

Benton-Banai, Edward (1988): The Mishomis Book: the voice of the Ojibway, St. Paul, MN: Red School House.

Berman, Tressa (2003): Circle of Goods: Women, Work, and Welfare in a Reservation Community, Albany: State University of New York Press.

Bernard, Russell (2006): Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Fourth edition. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press.

Bones, Robert (2003): The Geography of the Canadian North, Oxford University Press.

Brady, Maggie (1995): “Culture in treatment, culture as treatment. A critical appraisal of developments in addictions programs for indigenous North Americans and Australians”, Social Science and Medicine, 41: 1487-1498.

Brass, Gregory (2008): “Respecting the Medicines: Narrating an Aboriginal Identity”, en L. Kirmayer y G. Valaskakis (eds.), Healing Traditions: The Mental Health of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada, Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Bruner, Edward (1986): “Ethnography as narrative”, en V. Turner y E. Bruner (eds.), The Anthropology of Experience, Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

 (ed.) (1984): Text, Play and History: The Construction and Reconstruction of Self and Society, American Ethnological Society.

Canadian Institutes of Health Research (2007): Guidelines for Health Research Involving Aboriginal People, Ottawa: CIHR.

Chiefs of Ontario (2010): Take a stand. Prescription Drug Abuse Strategy Final Report, Toronto: Chiefs of Ontario.

Clifford, James (1988): The Predicament of Culture: Twentieth Century Ethnography, Literature and Art, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Comaroff, John y Jean Comaroff (1992): Ethnography and the Historical Imagination, Boulder: Westview Press.

Crawford, Robert (1994): “The Boundaries of the Self and the Unhealthy Other: Reflections on Health, Culture and Aids”, Social Science & Medicine, 38: 1347-1365.

Creswell, John (2003): Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

CruikShank, Julie (2000): “Reinscribing Meaning: Memory and Indigenous Identity in Sakha Republic (Yakutia)”, Arctic Anthropology, 37(1): 96-119.

 (1998): The Social Life of Stories: Narrative and Knowledge in Northern Canada, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press and Vancouver: UBC Press.

 (1990): Life Lived Like a Story: Life Stories of Three Yukon Native Elders, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press and Vancouver: UBC Press.

Csordas, Thomas (1997): Language, Charisma and creativity, Berkeley y Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Dow, Fraser (2008): Envisioning Sustainable Forestry Communities in Northern Ontario. Tesis Máster. University of Waterloo.

Duran, Eduardo y Bonnie Duran (1995): Native American Postcolonial Psychology, Albany: New York Press.

Dyck, Noel y James B. Waldram (eds.) (1993): Anthropology, Public Policy, and Native Peoples in Canada, Montreal & Kingston: University Mc-Gill-Queen Press.

Fabian, Johannes (2006): “The other revisited. Critical afterthoughts”, Antropological Theory, 6 (2): 139-152.

Fast, Phyllis (2002): Northern Athabascan survival: Women, community, and the future, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Flanagan, Tom (2008): First Nations? Second Thoughts, Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Garro, Linda y Cheryl Mattingly (eds.) (2000). Narrative and the Cultural Construction of Illness and Healing, Berkeley y Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Good, Byron (1994): “Illness Representations in Medical Anthropology: A Reading of the Field”, en B. Good, Medicine, Rationality, and Experience, Cambridge University Press.

Grobsmith, Elizabeth (1994): Reassessing Revitalization Movements: Perspectives from North America and Pacific Island, Lincoln/London: University of Nebraska Press.

Health Canada (2008): A Report on Mental Illnesses in Canada, Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada.

Hunt, Linda (2000): Strategic Suffering. Illness Narratives as Social Empowerment among Mexican Cancer Patients, en L. Garro y C. Mattingly (eds.), Narrative and the Cultural Construction of Illness and Healing, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada [INAC] (2010): Registered Indian Population by Sex and Residence, Ottawa: Department Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada.

Jones, David (2004): Rationalizing Epidemics: Meanings and Uses of American Indian Mortality since 1600, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Kamat, Vinay (2008): “This is not our culture! Discourse of nostalgia and narratives of health concerns in post-socialist Tanzania”, Africa, 78: 359-383.

Kienzler, Hanna y Duncan Pedersen (2007): Using Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods in the Study of Mental and Trauma-related Disorders, Douglas Mental Health University Hospital: Research Centre McGill University.

King, Malcolm, Alexandra Smith, y M. Gracey (2009): “Indigenous health part 2: the underlying causes of the health gap”, The Lancet, 374: 76-85.

Kirmayer, Laurence, y Gail Valaskakis (eds.) (2008): Healing Traditions: The Mental Health of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada, Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Kleinman, Arthur (1988): The illness Narratives: suffering, healing, and the human condition, New York: Basic Books.

Kuper, Adam (2005): Cultura. La versión de los antropólogos, España: Paidós.

Kuzel, Anton (1999): “Sampling in qualitative inquiry”, en B. Crabtree y W. Miller (eds.), Doing qualitative research, New Delhi: Vistaar Publications.

Linde, Charlotte (1993): Life Stories: The Creation of Coherence, New York: Oxford University Press.

Lock, Margaret y Nancy Scheper-Hughes (1996): “A critical-interpretative approach in medical anthropology: Rituals and routines of discipline and dissent”, en C. Sargent y T. Johnson (eds.), Handbook of medical anthropology: Contemporary theory and method, United Kingdom: Greenwood Press.

Miles, Matthew y Michael Huberman (1994): Qualitative data analysis, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

O’Nell, Theresa (1998): Disciplined Hearts. History, Identity, and Depression in an American Indian Community, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Pickering, Kathleen (2000): Lakota Culture, World Economy. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Polleta, Francesca et al. (2011): “The Sociology of Storytelling”, Annual Review of Sociology, 37: 109-30.

Quintero, Gilbert (2002): “Nostalgia and Degeneration: The Moral Economy of Drinking in Navajo Society”, Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 16: 3–21.

Rogers, Edward y Donald Smith (eds.) (1994): Aboriginal Ontario. Historical Perspectives on the First Nations, Toronto: Dundurn Press.

Rohner, Ronald y Evelyn C. Bettauer (1970): The Kwakiutl: Indians of British Columbia, Prospect Heights: Waveland Press.

Ruiz-Callado, Raúl (1999): “Comentarios a propósito del trabajo de campo”, Estudios Metodológicos, 1: 70-71.

Sahlins, Marshall (1993): "Goodbye to Tristes Tropes: Ethnography in the Context of Modern World History," The Journal of Modern History Vol. 65 (1): 1-25.

Sioux Lookout First Nations Health Authority (2009): Chiefs forum on social issue: answering the call for help: reducing prescription drug abuse in our communities, Sioux Lookout, ON: Sioux Lookout First Nations Health Authority.

Spicer, Paul (1998): “Narrativity and the representation of experience in American Indian discourses about drinking”, Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 22: 139-169.

Stromberg, Peter (2008): Language and self-transformation: a study of the Christian conversion narrative, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tanner, Adrian (2008): “The origins of Northern Aboriginal social pathologies and the Quebec Cree Healing Movement”, en L. Kirmayer, y G. Valaskakis, (eds.), Healing Traditions: The Mental Health of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada, Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Vírchez, Jorge y Maricela Faucheux (2012): “Life in the James Bay Lowland. Past, Present and Future”, Revista Mexicana de Estudios Canadienses, 22: 29-53.

 y Ronald Brisbois (2007): “A Historical and Situational Summary of Relations Between Canada and the First Nations: The Case of the Community of Kashechewan in Northern Ontario”, Revista Mexicana de Estudios Canadienses, 14: 87-100.

Waldram James, D. Herring y T. Young (2006): Aboriginal health in Canada: Historical, cultural and epidemiological perspectives, Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

 (2004). Revenge of the Windigo: The construction of the mind and mental health of North American Aboriginal peoples, Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

 (1997): The way of the pipe: Aboriginal spirituality and symbolic healing in Canadian prisons, Peterborough: Broadview Press.

Warry, Wayne (1998): Unfinished Dreams: Community Healing and the Reality of Aboriginal Self-Government, Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Yahn, Janis (2009): Impact of the Ontario Works Program on the Quality of Life of Aboriginal People Living on Reserve in Northern. Tesis Doctoral. Lakehead University.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15210/interfaces.v15i1.6720

Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.


ISSN eletrônico: 1984-5677

ISSN impresso: 1519-0994